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Chi-square screening were used that have categorical parameters; ANOVAs were used with persisted parameters

Chi-square screening were used that have categorical parameters; ANOVAs were used with persisted parameters

To research demographic, health status, and you will comorbidity differences between schizophrenia caregivers, and you may non-caregiver control, and you will anywhere between schizophrenia caregivers, and other caregivers, bivariate analyses was indeed performed.

Covariates detailed significantly more than (class and you may health attributes) were entered toward one logistic regression design in order to expect bringing care to help you a grownup patient with schizophrenia against. not taking worry. Several other separate logistic regression model is run to assume delivering proper care to help you a grownup diligent having schizophrenia compared to. the individuals providing take care of people having a condition besides schizophrenia. Schizophrenia caregivers was in fact coordinated so you’re able to low-caregiver or any other caregiver respondents toward tendency score using the “greedy” complimentary algorithm . A-1:2 coordinating proportion is actually used, for each schizophrenia caregiver is actually matched in order to several non-caregiver control respondents and independently to help you one or two caregivers regarding almost every other conditions. Post-match, differences when considering these groups were re-checked-out to ensure adequate complimentary. Together with, the latest matching is actually constrained in order for all of the matches was contained in this each 5EU country.

Differences on HRQoL, and self-reported comorbidities were examined post-matching to quantify the burden of schizophrenia caregiving as a function of humanistic outcomes. Chi-square and ANOVA tests were used to test for statistical differences across i) those providing care for an adult relative with schizophrenia vs. those not providing care for an adult relative and ii) those providing care for an adult relative with schizophrenia vs. those providing care for an adult relative with a condition other than schizophrenia. Statistical significance was set at 2-tailed p <0.05.

Performance

All in all, 398 schizophrenia caregivers, 158,989 low-caregivers control and you will 14,341 caregivers regarding other requirements was known through 5EU NHWS across the 2010, 2011 and you can 2013. Within this overall take to out-of 173,728 adults across the 5EU, 25.4 % have been during the France, twenty five.3 % within the Germany, twenty five.6 % in the united kingdom, 14.0 % in the Italy, and 9.6 % for the Spain.

Schizophrenia caregivers against. non-caregivers

The average age of schizophrenia caregivers was 45.3 years (SD = 15.8 years), 59.6 % were female, 52.5 % were currently employed, and 14.8 % reported an income of ? ˆ50,000/??40,000. Before matching, schizophrenia caregivers compared with non-caregivers, were more likely to be female (59.6 % vs. 51.4 %), less likely to be married/living with partner (57.4 % vs. 62.8 %), reported lower annual household income, were less likely to be employed (52.5 % vs. 57.7 %), more likely to currently smoke (36.7 % vs. 26.1 %), and reported greater comorbidity burden via the CCI, all p <0.05. No statistically significant differences on age, education level, BMI, alcohol use, and exercise behaviors were found between the two groups (see Table 1).

After propensity matching, schizophrenia caregivers were more likely to report experiencing sleep difficulties (42.7 % vs. 28.5 %), insomnia (32.4 % vs. 18.5 %), pain (39.7 % vs. 30.4 %), headaches (48.0 % vs. 42.0 %), heartburn (31.7 % vs. 22.9 %), anxiety (37.9 % vs. 23.6 %), and depression (29.4 % vs. 19.4 %) in the past 12 months than non-caregivers, all p <0.05. Based on the PHQ-9, schizophrenia caregivers reported greater severity of depressive symptoms than non-caregivers (p <0.001). Schizophrenia caregivers were also more likely to currently be using a prescription medication to treat depression (17.6 % vs. 8.2 %, p <0.001) than non-caregiver controls. Schizophrenia caregivers reported significantly lower MCS (40.3 vs. 45.9), PCS (46.8 vs. 49.0), and health utility (0.64 vs. 0.71), compared with non-caregivers (all p <0.001) (see Table 2).

Schizophrenia compared to. other caregivers

Before propensity matching, schizophrenia caregivers compared with caregivers of other conditions, were younger (45.3 vs. 49.1 years), less likely to be married/living with a partner (57.4 % vs. 68.1 %), had lower annual household income, were more likely to currently smoke (36.7 % vs. 29.2 %), and reported greater comorbidity burden, all p <0.05. No statistically significant differences on gender, education level, employment status, BMI, alcohol use, and exercise behaviors were found between the two groups (see Table 3).

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